The Birth of a Monocyte: Inflammatory Language No. 4

Monocyte by Asthydays 2012
Having only three days to live would be…daunting. I don’t suppose monocytes consider this, but once they enter the circulation, they have three days to either participate in inflammatory response reactions (be a reactionary) or die an oxidative death, only to be replaced by the next “frantic” monocyte. And so goes their life cycle.

Long before a monocyte is “born,” its ancestor or progenitor, a pluripotent stem cell, lives within bone marrow stromal cells and is capable of turning into any other kind of human cell: heart cell, liver cell, or a cell of the blood, to name a few. Some pluripotent stem cells develop into hematopoetic stem cells (HSC) that further develop into the blood cells of the human body—the lymphoid or myeloid cell lines. The myeloid cell line encompasses the platelets, red blood cells, mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils. It also encompasses monocytes, macrophages, and myeloid dendritic cells, leading to the birth of potential reactionaries.


From Wikipedia

In 1915, the movie The Birth of a Nation was released, triggering inflammatory responses all over the United States. Additionally, it became a recruitment tool for the KKK. The dangerous and faulty parallel between that movie and the monocyte is this: the monocyte can lead to inflammatory reactions, and the monocyte can recruit immune or reactionary cells. The parallel breaks down when there is no need to react, that it would be wrong and disease-causing to do so; so the tolerant monocyte just hangs out. There is no inflammation via its doing.

In the human, the majority of new monocytes are produced in the bone marrow of the vertebrae or sternum. In fetuses less than 4-5 months gestation, they are produced in the spleen and liver. Within a niche, a particular microenvironment of the bone marrow not yet determined, HSCs develop. This niche could be an osteoblastic (cell that builds bone) niche, an endothelial cell (lining of blood vessel) niche, a multipotent primitive mesenchymal cell (like CAR and nestin-expressing) niche in the stromal cells, or a combination of some or all of these.

From Wikipedia
Although the exact niche for HSC isn’t known, studies have revealed that CXCL12-CXCR4 (ligand-receptor) signaling is necessary for maintenance of HSC and their progenies. And, by influence of certain chemokines like interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-3, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF), the myeloid cell line develops.

GM-CSF causes further differentiation (specialization) of the myeloid to a myeloblast, which is further differentiated into basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes. SCF, GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-6, and specifically M-CSF aid in the development of promonoblasts, monoblasts, promonocytes, then finally—monocytes.

Macrophage: First Attempt by The Sensitive Scientist 2011 
The monocytes can reside within the marrow, be stored in the spleen, or nonchalantly patrol the blood for microbes—and await activation into macrophages or dendritic cells. If unchanged, the monocytes eventually die an apoptotic death. Their lack of DNA repair genes may have something to do with this for macrophages or dendritic cells are able to repair their DNA, and therefore live longer. I don’t suppose a monocyte considers this either, but it is their life.

Sources:

Apoptosis of monocyte: Bauer M, Goldstein M, Heylmann D, Kaina B (2012) Human Monocytes Undergo Excessive Apoptosis following Temozolomide Activating the ATM/ATR Pathway While Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Are Resistant. PLoS ONE 7(6): e39956. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039956

Bone marrow niches for HSC: Sugiyama T, NagasawaT ; Inf lamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2012 June; 11(3): 201–206. Published online 2012 June. doi:  10.2174/187152812800392689


There will be three Inflammatory Language posts devoted to monocytes. The first of which, Monocyte Fashion, addressed the style or types of monocytes. This post is the second devoted to monocytes. The third and forthcoming post will address cell trafficking, from the monocyte’s perspective. Future posts will eventually address the rest of Inflammatory Language, the song.

This is the fourth post of a series: Inflammatory Language. The series will briefly emphasize aspects of inflammation, mainly in response to microorganisms, but not always. You can contribute to this column by submitting a 300-500 word piece (or artwork) to me by email, along with byline. If deemed appropriate (it can be serious, political, scientific, or funny as long as it pertains to inflammation), we'll publish it here and the first place post (deadline February 28, 2013) will receive one copy of The Best Science Writing Online 2012 published by Scientific American/FSG!

Comments

  1. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  2. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  3. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  4. I was cured of HIV with the used of natural herbs. My name is luci amber and am from US. I love herbs so much. Most times, injection and drugs are just a waste of time. I was cured 8 months ago, i suffered from HIV for 13 yrs but with the help of Dr.OLU herbal medicine, i was cured within few weeks of drinking the herbs he sent to me through courier delivery service. This same doctor also cured my Aunty from herpes, as soon as i heard she had herpes, i quickly refer her to Dr.OLU and she was cured too after drinking his herbs.I have referred more than 15 persons to Dr.OLU and they were all cured from their various illness. Have you taken herbs before?. You have spent so much money on drugs,injections,surgeries etc and yet you have no good result to show for it. Contact Dr. OLU now, he is a herbalist doctor, i assured you of a cure if you drink his natural herbs. Dr.OLU have herbs that cures Hiv, Herpes, diabetics, asthma, hepatitis, HBP, STD, cancer, chronic, etc. Contact Dr OLU through his Email address on: drolusolutionhome@gmail.com or WHATSAPP/CALL him on+2348140654426 . Please share the good news to other people once you are cured

    ReplyDelete
  5. I am bold enough among many others to state that there is now a potent cure to this sickness but many are unaware of it. I discovered that I was infected with the virus 3 months ago, after a medical check-up. My doctor told me and I was shocked, confused and felt like my world has crumbled. I was dying slowly due to the announcement of my medical practitioner but he assured me that I could leave a normal life if I took my medications (as there was no medically known cure to Herpes). I went from churches to churches but soon found that my case needed urgent attention as I was growing lean due to fear of dying anytime soon. In a bid to look for a lasting solution to my predicament, I sought for solutions from the herbal world. I went online and searched for every powerful trado-medical practitioner that I could severe, cos I heard that the African Herbs had a cure to the Herpes syndrome. It was after a little time searching the web that I came across one Dr Itua(A powerful African Herbal Doctor), who offered to help me at a monetary fee. I had to comply as this was my final bus-stop to receiving a perfect healing. My last resolve was to take my life by myself, should this plan fail. At last it worked out well. He gave me some steps to follow and I meticulously carried out all his instructions. Last month, to be precise, I went back to the hospital to conduct another test and to my amazement, the results showed that negative,Dr Itua Can As Well Cure The Following Desease…Cancer,Hiv,Herpes, Hepatitis B,Liver Inflammatory,Diabetis,Fribroid, Dercum,fibromyalgia,Get Your Ex Back,Als,SYPHILLIS,Genetic disease,Epilepsy, Parkinson's disease.Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.You can free yourself of this Herpes virus by consulting this great African Herbal Doctor via this e-mail: drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com or call and whatsapp him on +2348149277967 He will help you and his herb medication is sure. he has the cure on all disease .You can talk to me on INSTAGRAM..tashamoore219....

    ReplyDelete
  6. Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection cant cure. I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. i read people's testimonies online on how they were cured of herpes, hiv, diabetics etc by Dr. Ogba Kosu herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with hiv for the past 7 years but Dr. Ogba Kuso cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from herpes and they were cured too .I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs. He is also a spell caster, he cast spells to restore broken marriages and a good luck spells to prosper and excel in life. Contact Dr. Ogba Kosu on: drogbakosu@gmail.com
    Phone/Whatsap no: +2348137291215
    facebook.com/Dr.OgbaKosucurecenter/

    ReplyDelete
  7. Many people wonder if there is a natural cure for Hiv or are looking for ways on how to get rid of Hiv for good. there are many natural Hiv remedies that can put Hiv into remission. there is a method for how to get rid of Hiv Which is taking of herbal medicines. My problem with Hiv has caused me many traumas,especially in my sex life.I was so afraid of infecting my girlfriend, I suffered the embarrassment of visiting dermatologists queries hundreds of times.Unfortunately, they did not find a definitive solution to my problem.The solution came from the least expected herbal doctor which is Dr idahosa. By reading in a specialized forum on the subject,How to cure Hiv virus completely. Many people had tried, with excellent and quick results.I had nothing to lose so I decided to contact dr. idahosa and use his herbal medicine to eliminate my Hiv. I spent three weeks using his herbal medicine and today my Hiv completely disappeared and turn out negative after numerous test from different hospitals. I recommend this method to all people who want to eliminate the Hiv from their body forever, The doctor contact,{ dridahosasolutioncenter@gmail.com }or Call His Whatsapp Number:+2348134261542

    ReplyDelete
  8. My life is beautiful thanks to you, Mein Helfer. Lord Jesus in my life as a candle light in the darkness. You showed me the meaning of faith with your words. I know that even when I cried all day thinking about how to recover, you were not sleeping, you were dear to me. I contacted the herbal center Dr Itua, who lived in West Africa. A friend of mine here in Hamburg is also from Africa. She told me about African herbs but I was nervous. I am very afraid when it comes to Africa because I heard many terrible things about them because of my Christianity. god for direction, take a bold step and get in touch with him in the email and then move to WhatsApp, he asked me if I can come for treatment or I want a delivery, I told him I wanted to know him I buy ticket in 2 ways to Africa To meet Dr. Itua, I went there and I was speechless from the people I saw there. Patent, sick people. Itua is a god sent to the world, I told my pastor about what I am doing, Pastor Bill Scheer. We have a real battle beautifully with Spirit and Flesh. Adoration that same night. He prayed for me and asked me to lead. I spent 2 weeks and 2 days in Africa at Dr Itua Herbal Home. After the treatment, he asked me to meet his nurse for the HIV test when I did it. It was negative, I asked my friend to take me to another nearby hospital when I arrived, it was negative. I was overwhite with the result, but happy inside of me. We went with Dr. Itua, I thank him but I explain that I do not have enough to show him my appreciation, that he understands my situation, but I promise that he will testify about his good work. Thank God for my dear friend, Emma, I know I could be reading this now, I want to thank you. And many thanks to Dr. Itua Herbal Center. He gave me his calendar that I put on my wall in my house. Dr. Itua can also cure the following diseases ... Cancer, HIV, Herpes, Hepatitis B, Inflammatory Liver, Diabetis, Fribroid,Parkinson's disease,Inflammatory bowel disease ,Fibromyalgia, recover your ex. You can contact him by email or whatsapp, @ .. drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com, phone number .. + 2348149277967 .. He is a good doctor, talk to him kindly. I'm sure he will also listen to you.

    ReplyDelete

Post a Comment

Popular Posts